• PTAB Institutes CBM Review of Nasdaq Patents Challenged by MIAX
    in: 35 USC 101, Alice Analysis, CBM institution decisions, Covered Business Method, district of new jersey, Federal Circuit, Ineligible Subject Matter, IP News, IPWatchdog Articles, IPWatchdog.com Articles, NASDAQ, patent trial and appeal board, patents, PTAB Trials, Trading Technologies International v. CQG, US Supreme Court, validity  | 

    PTAB Institutes CBM Review of Nasdaq Patents Challenged by MIAX

    In early October, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) instituted a series of covered business method (CBM) reviews on patents owned by American stock exchange Nasdaq. The CBM reviews were petitioned by trading platform provider Miami International…

  • 次第に
    in:  | 

    次第に

                            目次はこちら

    次第に

    –>だんだん

    $$ As shown in FIG. 6, each channel 60 comprises a convergent inlet portion and a divergent outlet portion. / 図6に示されているように、各流路60は先が次第に細くなった入口部および先が次第に太くなった出口部を有している。(USP7213467): convergent/divergent

    (INCREASINGLY)
    $$ The use of carbon monoxide, smoke and fire detectors in homes has become increasingly common. / 家庭において一酸化炭素、煙、及び火災の検出器を使用することは、次第に一般的になってきている。(USP8860573)

    $$ At value greater than this thickness, nozzle resistance becomes increasingly significant, and efficiency is again reduced. / この厚さより大きな値で、ノズルの抵抗は、次第に顕著になり、そして能率は再び低下する。(USP8123337)

    $$ Thus standard techniques are becoming increasingly inadequate. / したがって、従来の構成では次第に不適当なものとなってきている。(USP8120867)

    (PROGRESSIVELY)
    $$ During this time the pink colouring became progressively stronger. / この間に、ピンクの色彩は、次第により強くなった。(USP8534133)

    $$ Clearly, as the number of levels increase then for a given number of conclusion sets at the least significant level, the number of level one conclusion sets becomes progressively diminished. / 明らかに、所定の最下位レベルの結論セットの個数に対して、レベル数が増加すると、それに伴い、レベル1の結論セットの個数は、次第に減少する。(USP7577673)

    (GRADUALLY)
    $$ The ratio decreases gradually across the rail seat region 2 from the edges 2c, 2d to the centre 2e of the rail seat region 2. / 上記の割合は、線路座部分2の縁2c、2dから中央2eまで線路座部分2に亘って次第に減少する。(USP8201751)

    $$ However, in specific tests, using apparatus similar to that of the invention, it was found that, without specific extra addition of gaseous oxygen, the fall in voltage 41 was gradually restored (FIG. 3). / しかし、本発明の装置と類似した装置を使用して行った特定の試験では、ガス状酸素を特別にさらに添加しなくしても、出力電圧の低下41が次第に回復されることが分かった(図3)。(USP5436086)

                            目次はこちら

  • McGuire on FRAND

    I mentioned a few weeks back that Professor Mary-Rose McGuire had published titled Wer bestimmt, was FRAND ist?  Über Rahmenbedingungen, Maßstab und Zuständigkeit für die Beurteilung der FRAND Konformität (“Who decides what FRAND is?  On conditions, standards, and jurisdiction for the determination of FRAND conformity”), in the July-August 2018 issue of Mitteilungen der deutschen Patentanwälten (pp. 297-308).  Here is my translation of the abstract:
    With the Standard-Spundfass, Orange-Book-Standard, and Huawei/ZTE decisions, the case law has developed a roadmap for the assertion of the competition-law based compulsory license defense, which simulates the typical sequence of licensing negotiations.  So long as the rightsholder submits a FRAND-offer, the compulsory license defense should succeed only if–in order to avoid delay tactics–if the prospective licensee responds appropriately to it, that is, proves its willingness to license by rendering an accounting and posting security.  In place of accepting the offer, the prospective licensee can also present its own counteroffer.  This raises the question, what happens, if both rightsholder and prospective licensee submit FRAND offers, but cannot reach agreement.  This article addresses the open question, whether the court hearing the infringement action can determine FRAND-conformity, or even–as represented by the UK Patent Court in Unwired Planet–must set a concrete royalty rate.  To adopt the latter procedure, however, would unnecessarily jeopardize the efficiency of the infringement process.
    I stated that I might have more to say about the article after I had reviewed it more carefully, so here is the gist.  Professor McGuire argues, among other things, that the terms “fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory” each have specific meanings in other bodies of law, which should inform the analysis of what they mean in this context.  Specifically, she argues that “fair” is distinct from “reasonable” and is a procedural concept, requiring the parties to have access to the same information (and thus ties into the CJEU’s requirement that the patent holder make the implementer an offer prior to filing suit).  “Reasonable,” by contrast, is more of a result-oriented, contract-law concept, and should be read in a manner that will provide the patent owner a lawful return on its investment.  She is not enthusiastic about having courts determine FRAND rates–indeed, doesn’t think that this would be an appropriate job for a German court hearing an infringement case–but rather views the Huawei/ZTE framework as a tool for encouraging the parties to work things out on their own.  Under this view, the courts’ authority is limited to determining whether each party has presented the other with FRAND-conforming terms.  She thus takes issue with other authors, including Kurtz & Straub (see here)–and, I would imagine, Schaefer & Czychowski, whose article came out at about the same time as Professor McGuire’s–who would like German courts to determine FRAND royalties, based on a top-down method or something similar.  Professor McGuire argues that such methodologies would be antithetical to the contractual framework of the FRAND commitment, and would require statutory authorization (of the type Schaefer & McGuire contemplate, perhaps).  She concludes that, if both parties exchange FRAND offers but cannot reach agreement (including an agreement to have a third party determine the terms), the patent owner cannot obtain an injunction (as long as the defendant is complying with its obligations under Huawei) but (if I am understanding correctly) could recover normal patent damages for any resulting infringement.  Perhaps those damages could exceed the FRAND royalty, e.g., if they were in the nature of disgorgement of the defendant’s profits?

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  • World Health Summit Berlin: New Global Action Plan; Gates And Merkel To Open Global Challenges

    BERLIN — Ten years after establishing the Berlin World Health Summit, the M8 alliance of medical institutes around the globe sees some noticeable progress in political commitment to the health agenda. “Gifts” presented at the opening ceremony yesterday in the German capital include the announcement of German Health Minister Jens Spahn to establish a Hub for Global Health and step up its financial contributions to the World Health Organization (WHO) to 115 million euros over the next four years. The three-day summit also will receive a global action plan to catch up with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 on health and well-being for all.

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  • ~した~は、

                            目次はこちら

    ~した~は、

    (STH PP)
    $$ The arrangement shown will give a slightly lower antenna gain at an edge 36 of the coverage owing to the feed horn boresight lateral translation. / 示した配置は、給電ホーンのボアサイト横方向平行移動のために、受信可能範囲の端36で、わずかに低いアンテナ利得を与える。(USP8674893)

    $$ Air trapped and entrained within the load will prevent this necessary steam penetration. / 被滅菌物内に捕捉され混入した空気は、この必要な水蒸気の浸透を妨げるおそれがある。(USP7608219)

    $$ Although the coatings generated are not usually coherent self supporting films, the term "film forming" for corrosion inhibitors is widely used in this art and is used herein to describe such corrosion inhibitors. / 生成した薄膜は、普通は密着した自己支持性フィルムではないが、腐食防止剤についての“フィルム形成性”なる語はこの技術では広範に使用され、ここでこの様な腐食防止剤を説明するのに使用される。(USP7285519)

    $$ In the example shown in FIG. 2, the search topic represented by a centrally placed node 200. / 図2に示した例では、サーチトピックは中心に位置したノード200によって表わされる。(USP6424968)

    $$ It has been found that the benefits indicated above in relation to FIG. 3 can be achieved with mixtures containing between 5 and 20% of the titanium oxide. / 図3に関連して上記した効果は、5ないし20%の酸化チタンを含む混合物によって達成できることが分かった。(USP5441832)

    $$ Signals based on the SDH contain a type of parity data (BIP, or "byte interleaved parity") which is used in this way. / SDHを基にした信号は、このように使用されるタイプのパリティデータ(BIP:バイト・インターリーブ・パリティ)により構成されている。(USP5533005)

    (PP STH)
    $$ Manufactured objects often have to conform to dimensional and/or geometrical tolerances. / 製造した物体は、寸法的及び(又は)幾何学的許容公差に順応しなければならないことが多々ある。(USP7891248)

    $$ This is because GaN based materials tend to be resistant to wet chemical etching. / その理由は、GaNをベースとした材料は、湿式の化学エッチングに耐性があるからである。(USP7598149)

    $$ The above-mentioned pivot may comprise a boss provided on said associated rigid routing member which is push-fittable to said adjacent rigid routing member. / 上述したピボットは、前記隣接剛性搬送部材に押嵌め自在な前記関連した剛性搬送部材に設けられたボスからなっていてもよい。(USP6418264)

    (ADJ STH)
    $$ Close coupling of the vent tube and refrigerator sock has a number of other advantages. / 通気管と冷凍機ソックスとの近接した結合は、多数の他の利点を有する。(USP8650889)

    $$ Another suitable solvent is acetone. / 他の適した溶媒はアセトンである。(USP7622140)

    (OTHERS)
    $$ The fact that the highest frequency showed least disruption may be due to less efficient matching to the amplifier for the low impedances at this frequency. / 最も高い周波数が最も低い破壊を示した事実は、この周波数における低インピーダンスに対する増幅器への、より低効率のマッチングのためであり得る。(USP7608440): sth that S+V

    $$ During all of this construction the tube 6 containing the ion exchange to column 7 is not in place within the shielded container 5. / これらの組立作業を通して、イオン交換カラム7を収容した管6は、遮蔽容器5内の定位置にはない。(USP7592605): sth V-ing

                            目次はこちら

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  • Waymo Patent Asserted Against Uber Suffers Setback in Reexamination

    he U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a final office action in an ex parte reexamination of a patent owned by Google self-driving car development subsidiary Waymo. As a result of the reexamination, Waymo stands to lose 53 of 56 claims, including all 20 of the patent claims originally issued. The patent in question had been asserted as part of the company’s well-known infringement suit filed against Uber.

    The post Waymo Patent Asserted Against Uber Suffers Setback in Reexamination appeared…

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  • Mark your calendars: Helsinn Oral Argument Date Set

    The Supreme Court has set the date for oral argument in Helsinn Healthcare S.A. v. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. as December 4, 2018. Last week the Court also granted leave for the Solicitor General to participate in the oral argument as amicus curiae.  And, Teva Pharmaceuticals filed its brief, available [here].  Also, an interesting admixture of […]

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  • Judge Denies Beyoncé Motion for Summary Judgment in Feyoncé Trademark Case

    On Sunday, September 30th, U.S. District Judge Alison J. Nathan of the Southern District of New York signed a memorandum opinion and order that was officially entered the following day in a trademark case brought by pop music superstar Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter against Feyonce, Inc., a developer of merchandise marketed to engaged people using the brand name Feyoncé. Although the court found no dispute that the mark “FEYONCÉ” was chosen with the intent to capitalize on the famous “BEYONCÉ”…

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  • USPTO Discards Broadest Reasonable Interpretation Standard

    The USPTO has discarded the broadest reasonable interpretation standard.  This may lead to fewer patents held to be invalid during IPR, PGR, and CBM proceedings.  The announcement states: 
    The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has published a final rule changing the claim construction standard applied during inter partes review (IPR), post-grant review (PGR), and the transitional program for covered business method patents (CBM) proceedings before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB). 
    The final rule replaces the “broadest reasonable interpretation” standard with the federal court claim construction standard that is used to construe a claim in a civil action under 35 U.S.C. § 282(b). This is the same claim construction standard articulated in Phillips v. AWH Corp., 415 F.3d 1303 (Fed. Cir. 2005) (en banc), and its progeny. Additionally, under the final rule, when construing a claim term in an IPR, PGR, or CBM, the PTAB will take into consideration any prior claim construction determination that has been made in a civil action, or a proceeding before the International Trade Commission (ITC), if that prior claim construction is timely made of record in that IPR, PGR, or CBM.
    . . . As noted in the rule package, the change will lead, among other things, to greater consistency and harmonization with the federal courts and the ITC and lead to greater certainty and predictability in the patent system. . . .  Several comments questioned the proposed “retroactive” application of the rule. In response to these comments, the final rule will not be retroactively applied and instead will apply only to IPR, PGR, and CBM petitions filed on or after the effective date of the final rule, which is November 13, 2018.


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  • 次第に

                            目次はこちら

    次第に

    –>だんだん

    $$ As shown in FIG. 6, each channel 60 comprises a convergent inlet portion and a divergent outlet portion. / 図6に示されているように、各流路60は先が次第に細くなった入口部および先が次第に太くなった出口部を有している。(USP7213467): convergent/divergent

    (INCREASINGLY)
    $$ The use of carbon monoxide, smoke and fire detectors in homes has become increasingly common. / 家庭において一酸化炭素、煙、及び火災の検出器を使用することは、次第に一般的になってきている。(USP8860573)

    $$ At value greater than this thickness, nozzle resistance becomes increasingly significant, and efficiency is again reduced. / この厚さより大きな値で、ノズルの抵抗は、次第に顕著になり、そして能率は再び低下する。(USP8123337)

    $$ Thus standard techniques are becoming increasingly inadequate. / したがって、従来の構成では次第に不適当なものとなってきている。(USP8120867)

    (PROGRESSIVELY)
    $$ During this time the pink colouring became progressively stronger. / この間に、ピンクの色彩は、次第により強くなった。(USP8534133)

    $$ Clearly, as the number of levels increase then for a given number of conclusion sets at the least significant level, the number of level one conclusion sets becomes progressively diminished. / 明らかに、所定の最下位レベルの結論セットの個数に対して、レベル数が増加すると、それに伴い、レベル1の結論セットの個数は、次第に減少する。(USP7577673)

    (GRADUALLY)
    $$ The ratio decreases gradually across the rail seat region 2 from the edges 2c, 2d to the centre 2e of the rail seat region 2. / 上記の割合は、線路座部分2の縁2c、2dから中央2eまで線路座部分2に亘って次第に減少する。(USP8201751)

    $$ However, in specific tests, using apparatus similar to that of the invention, it was found that, without specific extra addition of gaseous oxygen, the fall in voltage 41 was gradually restored (FIG. 3). / しかし、本発明の装置と類似した装置を使用して行った特定の試験では、ガス状酸素を特別にさらに添加しなくしても、出力電圧の低下41が次第に回復されることが分かった(図3)。(USP5436086)

                            目次はこちら

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  • Western Tennessee Judge Denies Spotify’s Motions to Dismiss Copyright Infringement Claims Brought by Bluewater Music

    U.S. District Judge Jon McCalla of the Western District of Tennessee recently issued an order denying motions made by interactive streaming music provider Spotify to dismiss a case including copyright infringement claims brought by independent music publisher and copyright administration company Bluewater Music Corporation. Judge McCalla’s order determined Bluewater has standing for all 2,142 music compositions it has asserted based on ownership or an exclusive license of the works. Given…

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  • Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. TWi Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Fed. Cir. 2018)

    By Donald Zuhn — Last month, in Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. TWi Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the Federal Circuit affirmed a decision by the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey finding that U.S. Patent Nos. 7,722,898; 7,910,131; and 8,821,930 were not invalid and would be infringed by Defendants-Appellants TWi Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and TWi International LLC, DBA TWi Pharmaceuticals. The ‘898, ‘131, and ‘930 patents are owned by Plaintiff-Appellee Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Seeking approval to market generic versions of Oxtellar XR®, an oxcarbazepine extended-release tablet for treatment of partial epilepsy seizures in adults and children over the age of six,…

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  • A Realistic Perspective on post-Alice Software Patent Eligibility

    Much of the havoc wrought in the software patent system by the landmark decision Alice v. CLS Bank International, 134 S. Ct. 2347 (2014) stems from the unworkable two-part patent eligibility test based on vaguely defined and nebulous Abstract idea and significantly more constructs… In a patent eligibility landscape riddled with Alice-based rejections and invalidation it behooves patent practitioner and applicants alike to appreciate that not every innovation that achieves “a new, useful, and…

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  • ~したい

                            目次はこちら

    ~したい

    「~したい」の意味では、want > desire > wishの順で、願望の度合が強いという説もあるが、以下の文例などでそのような傾向があるかどうか確かめられたい。
    特許明細書は、発明(技術)を開示・記述するものであるから、人の感情の動きやそのニュアンスはテーマではないようにも見える。
    なお、英文特許明細書において、"desired"は、「所望の」という意味で多用される("to desire"の活用形中約7割程度)。

    (WANT)
    $$ For instance, the customer might specify that he wants data to be downloaded at 64 Kbit/s. / 例えば、顧客は64Kbit/sでデータをダウンロードしたいと特定してもよい。(USP6151309)

    $$ When the user wants to change context (perhaps refocussing from one task to another, or from work to leisure), the user profile must be re-specified by adding and/or deleting keywords. / ユーザがコンテキストを変更したいとき(多分1つのタスクから別なタスクへとか、仕事からレジャーへフォーカスをあて直すことであるが)、ユーザプロフィルはキーワードを添加削除することによって再度特定されなければならない。(USP6353827)

    (WISH)
    $$ The item to be identified could be anything which it is wished to identify or recognise–for instance a product on a production line could be compared with a good product for quality control purposes with a bad match triggering an alarm. / 識別されるアイテムは、識別又は認識したいものなら何でもよく、例えば、生産ライン上の製品は、品質管理の目的で良品と比較することができ、適合しない場合は警報をトリガすることができるであろう。(USP7589825)

    $$ Where a user wishes to specify the radiation pattern, the use of ADFs allows a constrained optimisation procedure many degrees of freedom. / ユーザが放射パターンを指定したい場合には、ADFの使用により制約された最適化手順に多くの自由度が許される。(USP7577260)

    $$ Thus, any asynchronous line card wishing to transmit will wait until this line indicates that the data bus is free before beginning a contention sequence, but any synchronous line card wishing to transmit will begin a contention sequence without regard to the state of the acknowledgement line. (USP5377189)

    $$ The display of an initial menu is used to enable the control unit programming to be adapted to the specific tasks which the user wishes to perform. / 初期メニューのディスプレイは、制御ユニットプログラミングをユーザーが実施したいと望む特別な仕事に適用できるようにするために用いられる。(USP5537605)

    $$ A called entity such as an application program running at a data processor within the network can state which call types it wishes to receive and make by specifying entries of the relevant call control information in the call control table. / ネツトワーク内のデータ・プロセツサ中で実行されるアプリケーシヨン・プログラムのような被呼者側のエンテイテイは、呼制御テーブル中の関連する呼制御情報のエントリを特定することによつて、受信したい呼タイプを決めることができる。(USP5442691)

    $$ An application program (or system user) wishing to route a call to a specific remote network entity specifies an appropriate call type name. ネツトワークの特定の遠隔エンテイテイに対して呼経路選択をしたいと望むアプリケーシヨン・プログラム(または、システム・ユーザ)は、使用する呼タイプの名称を特定する。(USP5442691)

    (DESIRE)
    $$ When it is desired to use the appliance, the user reclines the main body of the appliance. / 機器を使用したいときに、ユーザは、機器の本体を傾斜させる。(USP7581284)

    $$ The final column 111 contains data relating to a specific biological target characteristic which is desired to be modelled.(USPA02062307)

    $$ It will be appreciated that this can cause difficulties, particularly in an example as described above where it is desired to use a common control unit for controlling different pieces of controllable equipment. / こうしたことが困難の原因となり、特に上記したように異なった制御可能な装置を制御するために共通の制御ユニットを使用したい場合に、困難を生じることが認識されるであろう。(USP5537605)

                            目次はこちら

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  • NASA Tech in Your Life, From Hair Care to Coffee Makers to Baby Formula

    NASA recently launched a new version of its Home & City website featuring a redesigned, interactive interface designed to give users a sense of the scope of technologies originally developed by NASA which they encounter in their lives, sometimes on a daily basis. According to Derek Wang, NASA’s public outreach manager for the Space Technology Mission Directorate, the approximately 130 technologies included in the Home & City website is less than one percent of the thousands of…

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