• Proving A Patent Invalid: The Burden is on the Challenger

    When an individual or company challenges the validity of a patent, “the burden of establishing invalidity of a patent or any claim thereof shall rest on the party asserting such invalidity.” In other words, the challenger bears the burden of demonstrating that the patent is invalid—the individual or company holding the patent need not show that the patent is valid. However, the text of the statute is silent on the precise nature of the challenger’s burden.

    The post Proving A Patent Invalid:…

    Continue Reading ...
  • 予め/前もって



    –>事前に; beforehand

    $$ The exact value of the predetermined value in this algorithm may be chosen in advance depending on the specific process being performed by the process tool 12. / このアルゴリズムにおける所定の値の正確な値は、処理ツール12によって実行される特定の処理次第で予め選択することができる。(USP8224474)

    $$ It will be noted, however, that the operator has been able to set up a significant amount of information in advance of the live broadcast itself. (USP6287199)

    $$ In general, the price to be paid for use of data may not be known in advance to the program. (USP6141652)

    $$ For static publishing, the whole of the target site is generated in advance and stored.(USP01032209)

    $$ For example, in the binding of epidermal growth factor ("EGF") to receptors in a cell membrane, whereupon the receptors dimerize, individual units of EGF are labelled beforehand, some with a donor molecule and some with an acceptor molecule. / 例えば、細胞膜内におけるレセプタに対する上皮成長因子(Epidermal Growth Factor:EGF)のバインディングにおいては、この際に、レセプタが二量化し、EGFの個々の単位のいくつかのものに、供与体分子及び受容体分子として標識が予め付与される。(USP7652266)

    $$ This allows the system to operate in a preview mode in which video clips are read from the store modified and/or combined and displayed on a monitor at video rate without the need to commit the modification or combination to the store beforehand. / これにより、システムはプレビューモードで動作することが可能となる。プレビューモードにおいては、ビデオクリップは記憶装置から読出され、修正および/または合成されて、ビデオレートでモニタ上に表示される。このとき、予め記憶装置に修正または合成を登録する必要はない。(USP6445874)

    $$ The fasteners are pre-loaded in a package and dispense via at least one fastener delivery tube that interconnects the setting tool to a fastener feeder device. / ファスナーは、パッケージにおいて予め装填され、ファスナー・フィーダー・デバイスにセッティング・ツールを相互連結させる少なくとも1つのファスナー搬送チューブによって分配する。(USP6692213): pre-load

    $$ This limitation can be overcome by measuring the wavefront aberration and pre-shaping the input beam so as to cancel the effects of the aberration. / この限定は、波面収差を測定し、入力ビームを予め成形し、収差の影響をキャンセルするようにすることによって克服され得る。(USP6570143): pre-shape

    $$ The pigmented resin layer is only transferred to and bonded to the pre-printed portions 12 within the addressed design and not to the intermediate areas of substrate 14, as illustrated in FIG. 3D. / 色素含有樹脂層は、図3Dに示されるように、配置されたデザイン内の予め印刷された部分12にのみ転写および結合され、基材14の中間領域には転写および結合されない。(USP6267052): pre-print

    $$ The Systems Administrator 64 pre-provisioned the key and its associated data. / システム管理者64はキーおよびその関連するデータを予め暫定した。(USP5907602): pre-provision

    $$ Either way it is important that a pre-selected amount of water is discharged to the mixing zone so that the drink produced is of the required strength and to avoid water spillage in or from the vending machine. / 所定の濃度の飲み物を作り、装置から水が溢れないようにするには、混合部に予め決められた量の水が供給されることが重要である。(USP5893487): pre-select

    $$ The fibre unit 1 in the mini pan 2 is provided with pre-connectorised tails 230 for termination on customer electronics NTE 232. / ミニパン2内のファイバユニット1は予め接続処理が施されたテイル(図示せず)を備え、顧客の電子回路(図示せず)上で終端される。(USP5749565): pre-connectorise

    $$ In order to feed the fibre unit 1 from the mini pan 2 positioned within a customer’s premises, the pre-installed tubing is positioned in the guide 16b. / ファイバユニット1を顧客の施設内にあるミニパン2から供給するために、予め設置した配管が案内16b内に置かれている。(USP5749565): pre-install

    $$ The order of priority is pre-arranged so that the element used for spatial replacement is likely to bear a reasonable relationship to the original (uncorrupted) value of the corrupted element. / その優先順は、空間隠蔽に用いる要素が、不良要素の元の(損われない)値に対しまずまずの関係をもつと考えられるように予め定める。(USP5353059): pre-arrange

    $$ According to this embodiment, the encoding data processing apparatus does not include a code word generator because the code word is pre-stored in the memory. / この適用例においては、コードワードは予めメモリに記憶されており、したがって、符号化データ処理装置は、コードワード生成器を備えていない。(USP03131243): pre-store

    $$ The transmitter also transmits a command to the TV 2 to select a predetermined channel, e.g. channel 1. / 送信器は、コマンドをTV2にも送信し、チャネル1などの予め決定されているチャネルを選択する。(USP02042917): predetermined「所定の」とも和訳される


    Continue Reading ...
  • On comments within Facebook groups comprising possibly defamatory social media statements

    From Cory Batza, 44 Pepp. L. Rev. 429 (2017)

    In another case dealing with an allegedly defamatory tweet, Feld v. [page 456] Conway, n182 the court considered whether a tweet was defamatory in the context of the entire conversation. n183 Feld, the plaintiff, arranged to have a horse breeder ship her horse to a farm to become a companion horse, but the horse was instead shipped to Canada and potentially slaughtered. n184 The mishap became the topic of an ongoing online debate. n185 Conway, the defendant, entered into the debate and posted the allegedly defamatory tweet. n186 Feld’s professional success was dependent upon “public review and endorsement of her publications,” and interested parties often searched her name on the Internet. n187 The allegedly defamatory tweet appeared in the search results on Internet search engines when users entered Feld’s name, causing extensive harm to Feld’s reputation. n188 In her defense, the defendant asserted that the statement was a constitutionally protected opinion. n189 The court ultimately found that the statement was protected because the tweet was a part of a heated Internet debate about the plaintiff’s responsibility for the disappearance of her horse. n190

    Similarly, in Finkel v. Dauber, n191 a court again analyzed allegedly defamatory social media statements by looking at the conversation’s context. n192 In Finkel, a social media user sued a group of adolescents when they posted comments about her on a secret Facebook page that stated she “was seen having sexual relations with a horse, contracted HIV from sharing needles with heroin addicts, contracted AIDS from a male prostitute, and [page 457] transformed into the devil.” n193 The adolescents were officers of a secret Facebook group n194 called “Ninety Cents Short of a Dollar” that did not have public content or appear on any Facebook member’s profile. n195 In considering whether the plaintiff was defamed, the court took special note of the fact that the plaintiff never alleged that the secret group’s posts were “accessible to anyone outside the group” and that her name was never actually used in the posts. n196 Taken together, the court stated that: “The entire context and tone of the posts constitute evidence of adolescent insecurities and indulgences, and a vulgar attempt at humor. What they do not contain are statements of fact.” n197

    Courts should follow the Finkel court’s approach to ensure that tweets that are no more than “rhetorical hyperbole” are not held to be [page 458] defamatory. n198 Conversely, courts should not be too quick to decide that any hastily constructed and posted tweet is necessarily an opinion and not a false statement of fact. n199 For social media backlash, the context is typically the same: an individual with an average social media presence posts some type of statement or photo onto his or her social media page, and the social media community responds by condemning the user and flooding the Internet with a false perspective of that individual’s identity. n200 As was the case in Feld v. Conway, n201 these defamatory tweets or Facebook posts are typically searchable and available to the public through search engines. n202 Therefore, social media backlash implicates more reputational issues because the wider online community thinks less of the plaintiff rather than simply a small group of people. n203 It is easy to say that these types of statements are not “vulgar attempt[s] at humor” n204 because they are real responses to some distinct post. n205 The issue would be whether, in the context of strangers commenting about a social media user they have never met, the allegedly defamatory statements could be construed by a reasonable observer as conveying facts. n206
    The court’s view of Twitter or Facebook will likely determine if the court will hold that a reasonable factfinder could conclude that the tweet or Facebook comment is a provable false statement of fact. n207 If the court believes social media sites are simply platforms for users to instantaneously vent and the reasonable viewer does not actually take these comments seriously, then it will likely rule that the allegedly defamatory tweet or Facebook comment is not based in fact. n208 However, if the court sees social [*459] media sites as valuable mediums for discourse, n209 it will be more likely to conclude that a defamatory comment would be taken seriously and therefore not be protected by the First Amendment. n210

    See also Cohen v. Google, Inc., 887 N.Y.S.2d 424 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 2009)

    See also Parker v. Google, Inc., 422 F. Supp. 2d 492, 500 (E.D. Pa. 2006). Roy Parker was an author who claimed that Google should be held liable for defamation and invasion of privacy because it archived false statements about him posted by Google group users, provided a search function that returned a list of websites containing his name, and continued to cache such websites after being notified that they were defamatory. Id. [ from 44 Val. U.L. Rev. 329 ]

    See also 15 N.C. J.L. & Tech. 463: Google describes some specific requests related to YouTube and Google Groups.

    Continue Reading ...
  • Specific Intent to Induce Patent Infringement Inferred from Pharmaceutical Label

    The Federal Circuit heard the case of Sanofi v. Watson Labs.. Sanofi is the owner of two patents claiming compositions and uses of the cardiovascular drug dronedarone. The ‘167 patent claims methods of reducing cardiovascular hospitalization by administering dronedarone to patients meeting specific conditions that mirror those of a clinical study conducted by Sanofi between 2005 and 2008 (“ATHENA”). The court held that the asserted claims do not exclude compositions containing polysorbate…

    Continue Reading ...
  • From Federal Circuit Clerk to Supreme Court Fellow

    You might have noticed today two rather succinct opinions issued by the Federal Circuit.  One wonders if that is in response to recent criticism of the Federal Circuit for issuing so many Rule 36 opinions in patent related appeals. I thought it was interesting that one of the Federal Circuit’s judicial clerks recently moved on […]

    Continue Reading ...
  • Beware Waiver: Recovery Not Permitted on Damages Theories Not Presented/Preserved at Trial

    In Promega Corporation v. Life Technologies Corporation, on remand from the Supreme Court, the Federal Circuit affirmed district court rulings that granted Life Technologies’ motion for judgment as a matter of law (“JMOL”) that Promega Corp. had failed to prove its infringement case under 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) and § 271(f)(1), and subsequently denied Promega’s motion for a new trial.

    The post Beware Waiver: Recovery Not Permitted on Damages Theories Not Presented/Preserved at Trial appeared first…

    Continue Reading ...