• 径(直径・半径・曲率半径・粒子径・粒径・内径・外径)



    $$ Its diameter was 8 μm. / その直径は8μmであった。(USP5903685)

    $$ The diameter of these is generally between 0.5 and 1.2 microns, although this can vary according to the resolution of the scanner. / これらのパターンの直径は、走査装置の分解能によって変わるけれども、代表的には、0.5~1.2μm の値を有する。(USP5373373)

    $$ The organic filler particles are approximately spherical, prior to film stretching, and by particle size is meant the average diameter of a particle. / 有機充填剤粒子はフィルム延伸の前には略球形であり、そして粒子サイズとは粒子の平均直径を意味する。(USP5935903)

    $$ The hollow cylindrical aperture within the seal has a diameter of 1mm, so that the fibre unit 1 is a friction fit within this aperture. / シール内部の中空の円筒状の開口は直径が1mmで、ファイバユニット1がこの開口と摩擦はめ合わせ(フィット)される。(USP5749565)

    $$ The Dispersant (0.45 parts) was dissolved in a 4:1 mixture of methoxypropylacetate/n-butanol (7.55 parts) in an 8 dram glass vial containing 3 mm diameter glass beads (17 parts). / 本分散剤(0.45部)を、直径3mmのガラスビーズ(17部)を含む、8ドラム(1/16オンス)のガラス製バイアルびん中で、メトキシプロピル・アセテート/n-ブタノールの4:1混合物(7.55部)中に溶解した。(USPA03027873)

    $$ In order to achieve these rates the gas delivery nozzles must be at a distance from the component that is less than the diameter of the nozzle. / この速度を達成するには、ガス供給ノズルを該ノズルの直径よりも小さい成分から離して置かなければならない。(USPA01020503)

    $$ For 50 mm diameter wafers following the conventions, each wafer includes a major flat of length 162 mm roughly parallel to the crystal plane, and a minor flat of length 81 mm roughly parallel to the crystal plane. / 50mmの直径のウェハに対しては、この規則に従って、ウェハは、<110>結晶面に概ね平行な16±2mmの長さの主フラット(major flat)と、<110>結晶面に概ね平行な8±1mmの長さの副フラット(minor flat)をそれぞれ備えている。(USP7072441)

    $$ The nozzle outlet was 0.2 mm in diameter. / ノズルの出口直径は0.2mmであった。(USP7150766)

    $$ The nozzle outlet diameter is 0.2 mm. / ノズルの出口外径は0.2mmである。(USP7150766)

    $$ This problem of alignment accuracy is further exacerbated when larger diameter wafers are used, for example 150 mm diameter wafers. / このアライメント精度の問題は、例えば150mmの直径のウェハといった、より大きな直径のウェハが用いられる場合には、さらに深刻化する。(USP6977986)

    $$ A chiller according to claim 4 wherein the ratio of the diameter to rim height is between about 5 to 1 and about 5 to 4. / 請求項4に記載の冷却装置において、直径対縁部の高さのアスペクト比が約5:1乃至約5:4である、冷却装置。(USP6098417)

    $$ The forward end 84 of the bore 82 is reduced in diameter to provide an end-stop to limit forward travel of the lancet piston 81. / 内孔83の前端84は、ランセットピストン81の前方への移動を制限するための端部停止部を与えるために、直径が縮小されている。(USP8092394)

    $$ For example, in a rural area with a low density of subscribers, a service area 12 could cover an area with a radius of 15-20 Km. / 例えば、加入者が低密度の地方では、サービスエリア12が、15~20km半径の地域にわたることもある。(USPA02018462)

    $$ A mass spectrometer as claimed in claim 1 wherein the length of said ion guiding means is between 20 and 100 times greater than the radius of said elongate space. / 前記イオン・ガイド手段の長さが、前記長尺状スペースの半径よりも20倍乃至100倍の間の倍率で大きい、請求項1に記載の質量スペクトロメータ。(USPA01010354)

    $$ The size of the halo 16 caused by the primary reflections 15 depends on the physical thickness and the constitution of the face plate 11 but typically will have a radius of about 15 mm. / 一次反射15により引起こされたハロー16の大きさは、表面プレート11の物理的な厚さと構造とによるが、典型的には約15ミリメートルの半径を有する。(USP5453842): radius

    $$ The outer diameter of the laser module holder (14Ac) is designed to be equal to that of the inner diameter of the main body of the optical assembly (FIG. 10 reference m). / レーザーモジュールホルダーの外径は、光学アセンブリ(図10参照)の主要部の内径に等しくなるように設計する。(USP6764226)

    $$ If the fibers are not identical, one or both of them can be stretched so that their outer diameters match. Their mode fields will then be identical. / ファイバが理想的でなければ、ファイバの外径がマッチするようにファイバの一方または双方を引き延ばすことができ、これでファイバのモード電磁界が同一になる。(USP6631234)

    $$ For a single microtube resistance element, the calculation of the internal diameter of the channel is as follows: / 1個のマイクロチューブ抵抗要素については、外側端部部分の通路の内径の計算は次の通りである。(USP6186974)

    $$ Upon releasing the wire fastenings, with the liner inside the pipe, the roll tends to uncoil to the inside diameter of the pipe. / ライナーがパイプ内にあるときに、ワイヤによる締結を解除すると、ロールはパイプの内径まで広がる傾向を有する。(USP6228312)

    $$ The ring magnet 192 is held on its outer diameter by a clamp 200 with a spindle 202. / リング磁石192はその外径部分がスピンドル202を用いてクランプ200によって保持されている。(USP6611142)

    (粒子径/粒径)(average) particle size (162) >> particle diameter (7)
    $$ The particles preferably have an average particle size of 5-100 μm, e.g. about 10-20 μm. / 前記粒子は、好ましくは5~100μm、例えば10~20μmの平均粒径を有している。(USP6689832)

    $$ The resultant beads can have a very narrow particle size distribution. / 得られるビーズは非常に狭い粒径分布を有することができる。(USP6277932)

    $$ The filler material preferably has an average particle diameter of less than 45 microns. / 充填剤材料は好ましくは45ミクロンより小さい平均粒径を有する。(USP6313192)

    $$ These components were processed in order to produce a dust free granule of a diameter not less than 150 microns. / 少なくとも150ミクロンの粒径のダスト非含有粒状物を生じるために、これらの成分を処理した。(USP6465413)

    $$ Each racetrack edge 168 has a constant but different radius of curvature and both edges 168 are curved about the same setting out node point 170. / 競争路縁部168の曲率半径は、それぞれ一定であるが互いに異なっており、両方の縁部168が同一の設定ポイント170を中心として湾曲している。(USP7090586)

    $$ The curve becomes tighter, which is equivalent to a smaller radius of curvature, while the subtended angle increases. / 湾曲がきつくなり、これはより小さな曲率半径に相当し、その一方でなされる角度が増大する。(USP6833656)

    $$ The radius of curvature of the fibre 1,2 was 25 cm. / ファイバ1、2の曲率半径は25cmであった。(USP5903685)

    $$ In FIG. 2, the two liquids have pressures P1 and P2 respectively, and the interface 20 has a radius of curvature r. / 図2において、2つの液体はそれぞれ圧力P1及びP2を有し、界面20は曲率半径rを有する。(USP5961832)

    $$ In a typical arrangement, the focal lengths LA of the input and output macrolenses are–80 mm, the macrolens apertures are 21 mm, the microlens pitch (aperture) p is 915 microns, and the distance `d` between the plane surfaces 12b, 13b of the macrolens arrays 12, 13 is 2.984 mm. / 典型的な構成では、入力および出力マクロレンズの焦点距離LAは-80mm、マクロレンズ口径は21mm、マイクロレンズピッチ(口径)は915ミクロン、およびマクロレンズ配列12、13の平面12bと平面13bとの間の距離「d」は2.984mmである。(USP6097541)

    $$ The pump is specified by the cam radial throw, the piston bore, the spring pre-load (when the cam is at bottom dead centre, BDC) and spring rate, and the rotational inertia. / ポンプは、カム半径スロー(cam radial throw)、ピストン口径、バネ予備負荷(カムが下死点BDCにある場合)、バネ定数、回転慣性によって規定される。(USP6132010)

    $$ Controlled variation of air hole sizes and overall fiber diameter can therefore be used to modify the birefringence of the fiber. / ファイバの複屈折率を変更するために、空気孔サイズおよび全体のファイバ径の変化を制御することができる。(USP6631234)

    $$ A compression device is then used to squeeze the two end rings 4 of the locking ring together, which compresses the ends and holds them tightly and sealingly within the connection means. / 次に縮径器具を使用し、ロッキングリングの2つのエンドリング4を共に絞るように締めて各末端を縮径し、締結手段3の内部で各末端を密閉状態に固定する。(USP7565730)

    $$ …the reduced diameter section of the can… (USP5660867)

    $$ The assembly 20 has a larger diameter portion 24 onto which the carrier 40 is wound and an integral reduced diameter portion 26 at each end of the larger diameter portion which is mounted to rotate in a plain bearing aperture of a respective bearing 18 in a construction to be described with reference to FIG. 2. (USP6427750): larger diameter portion

    $$ The coupling-nut (3) is provided with a lower end portion (14) of larger diameter and an upper coupling portion (16) of reduced diameter. (USP4844179): of larger diameter / of reduced diameter

    $$ During assembly of the clutch the larger diameter parts A of the cage 22 between the one recess 34b and the recesses 42, 43 are circumferentially alined with cut outs 73 provided in the circumferential wall 71 of the rebate 70. (USP4838400)

    $$ At its machine end 17, the balloon 13 has a larger diameter sleeve 21, with an internal diameter of about 7 mm. (USPA02005202)

    $$ The additional drag on the larger diameter bullet maintains sufficient tension on the line leading end to prevent kinking. (USPA01035287)

    $$ Alternative approaches have attempted to secure the fibre by allowing the metal sleeve to be aligned to the laser diode within a sufficiently large diameter bore to allow radial movement to obtain optimum alignment of the fibre. (USP7636504)

    $$ A roller sub as claimed in claim 1, wherein the conveyor includes wheels of large diameter arranged to extend through the body at opposite sides of the sub. (USP6779598)

    $$ In the illustrated embodiment the large diameter cylinder 4 forms the basis for a fabricated casing for a gas turbine engine module. (USPA02061373)

    $$ The invention provides a golf club, a putter, wherein a shaft is fixed within a large diameter grip by means of inserts which are in the form of weighting elements. (USPA01039215)


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  • Alternative Routes to Protection of Innovation

    Every year different groups provide rankings of patent prosecution law firms and a company’s patent count for the year.  Patent law firms will tout their rankings based upon the number of filings at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) or the number of allowances they obtained for clients over the previous year.  And companies will boast about their patent prowess based upon the size of their portfolios. But things are changing. Innovative algorithms and even diagnostic methods may be…

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  • Alternative Routes to Protection of Innovation

    Every year different groups provide rankings of patent prosecution law firms and a company’s patent count for the year.  Patent law firms will tout their rankings based upon the number of filings at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) or the number of allowances they obtained for clients over the previous year.  And companies will boast about their patent prowess based upon the size of their portfolios. But things are changing. Innovative algorithms and even diagnostic methods may be…

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  • How Law Firm Partners Can Gain Associates’ Commitment and Respect

    In their supervisory role, partners typically set the tone for, and dictate the parameters of, their interactions with associates. A first partner may approach the partner-associate relationship as one of mutuality. A second similarly situated partner may premise the relationship substantially on advancing his or her own self-interest. Not surprisingly, associates tend to prefer working for the first partner if given the choice.

    The post How Law Firm Partners Can Gain Associates’…

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  • Can an Intervenor Cause Improper Venue?

    Can an Intervenor Cause Improper Venue?

    by Dennis Crouch

    In re Intex Recreation Corp., No. 18-131 (Fed. Cir. June 13, 2018) (denial of mandamus) [IntexMandamus]

    Team Worldwide (TWW) sued Wal-Mart in E.D. Texas for infringing its U.S. Pat. Nos. 9,211,018, 7,346,950, and 7,246,394 (air mattress products).  Wal-Mart does not make the accused products but does sell them.  The manufacturers (Intex, Coleman, and Bestway) are all contractually bound to indemnify Wal-Mart and intervened to defend their products. After intervening the manufacturers then demanded that the case be severed and transferred to their chosen districts (Intex to C.D. Cal; Coleman to N.D. Ill, and Bestway to Arizona). The district court refused — holding that the manufacturers had waived any objection to venue by intervening.

    The Federal Circuit has now denied the manufacturers’ petition for writ of mandamus:

    1. No Need for Speed: Ordinarily appeals are only filed following a final judgment in a case. Writ of mandamus effectively allows for immediate interlocutory appeals, but requires a petitioner to show a need for immediate decision.  Here, petitioners did not prove why immediacy is necessary. 

    Continue reading Can an Intervenor Cause Improper Venue? at Patently-O.

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  • Cutting and pasting to create legal briefs?

    Years ago, in defending Laurence Tribe from charges of plagiarism, Alan Dershowitz spoke of cultural differences between law and
    other disciplines. See, for example, Lawyers copying other lawyers: plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose , which contains the text:

    . As recounted on Dean Velvel’s blog in September 2004:

    According to The Crimson, Dershowitz said that there is a “‘cultural difference’” between sourcing in the legal profession and in other academic disciplines. With the rest of the sentence being The Crimson’s words, albeit reflecting Dershowitz’s ideas, The Crimson wrote that “He said that judges frequently rely on lawyers’ briefs and clerks’ memoranda in drafting opinions. This results in a ‘cultural difference’ between sourcing in the legal profession and other academic disciplines, Dershowitz said.”

    Flash forward to the year 2018, and note a post in the Northwest Herald

    The $400-an-hour attorney representing Algonquin Township Highway Commissioner Andrew Gasser has had accusations of plagiarism leveled against him.

    The charges stem from an April 25 brief Woodstock attorney Robert Hanlon filed in a lawsuit against Clerk Karen Lukasik, former Highway Commissioner Bob Miller and his wife, Anna May Miller.

    Lawyers on the other side of the case flipped to page 4 and – under the title “INJUNCTIVE RELIEF” – notice some irregularities in Hanlon’s writing. A Google search revealed it actually wasn’t Hanlon’s writing at all.

    It was an uncited word-for-word copy of an April 2011 Chicago Daily Law Bulletin article.

    Later in Hanlon’s document – on page 7 and spanning paragraph 7 until the conclusion of the brief – the lawyers discover more language lifted from another source without an attribution or citation. This time, the words came from page 4 of a “Practice Series” primer on temporary restraining orders from Chicago-based firm Jenner & Block.

    link: http://www.nwherald.com/2018/06/12/documents-read-hanlons-legal-brief-trustees-are-calling-plagiarism/dbt58jl/

    And yes there is a 2018 story linking Harvard and plagiarism

    Princeton Graduate wins Harvard Thesis Prize, kind of. Plagiarism hits the Ivy Leagues.

    Different points of view are reflected in the comments. One that interested IPBiz:

    the GSD dude is citing last semesters mike hayes and andrew holder talk ‘architecture before speech’, which tells you something about the academic rigor by which his thesis work was produced: in that talk both KMH and Andrew Holder admit that they ‘dont have to be correct’ in citing a text–they simply have to use it in a way that supports their argument. by their own admission they barely rise to the level of cultural criticism–which is fine, btw, we need more intelligent cultural discussion of architecture. but to cite that for a masters thesis? it barely rises to minimum academic standards we learn in childhood.

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  • Halo Leather, appealing from TTAB to CAFC, loses

    As to basically identical trademarks used to mark related products, the decision in
    In re Halo Leather, Limited is instructive:

    In this trademark case, Halo Leather Limited seeks to
    register the mark “AQUAPEL” and an associated design
    for leather or imitation leather home goods, including
    beds, curtain rails, curtain hooks, curtain rings, mattresses,
    and tables. The examining attorney in the Patent and
    Trademark Office rejected Halo’s application on the
    ground that the mark is likely to be confused with a
    registered mark “AQUAPEL” for home goods including
    bed blankets, comforters, curtain fabric, curtains of textile,
    mattress covers and pads, table linen, textile fabrics,
    and textile place mats. The Trademark Trial and Appeal
    Board upheld the examining attorney’s rejection based on
    its findings that the two marks are similar in terms of
    their appearance, sound, connotation, and commercial
    impression, and that consumers would likely identify
    goods covered under the marks to emanate from a single
    source. We affirm.
    In finding of likelihood of
    confusion, there is no requirement that the goods be
    identical so long as one of the goods in the application is
    sufficiently related to one of the goods in the registration
    such that consumers would be likely to think they were
    offered by the same source. See, e.g., Hewlett-Packard
    Co., 281 F.3d at 1267 (“Even if the goods and services in
    question are not identical, the consuming public may
    perceive them as related enough to cause confusion about
    the source or origin.”). Here, the likelihood of confusion is
    caused by the high degree of relatedness of the parties’
    goods, not by their being identical.

    This is not a case like In re Coors Brewing Co., 343
    F.3d 1340, 1346–47 (Fed. Cir. 2003), in which the court
    found that the Board’s evidence was insufficient to support
    the finding that two marks sharing the term “BLUE
    MOON” are related. In Coors, one mark was for restaurant
    services, and the other mark was for beer. Id.
    Although the court found that the two marks were similar,
    their applications were different: one was for services
    and the other for goods. See id. (holding that it is not true
    that “any time a brand of [food or beverage] has a trademark
    that is similar to the registered trademark of some
    restaurant, consumers are likely to assume that the [food
    or beverage] is associated with that restaurant”). Unlike
    Coors, both Halo’s application and Nanotex’s mark concern
    similar goods, and substantial evidence supports the
    Board’s finding that a consumer would likely view the
    goods under Halo’s mark and Nanotex’s mark emanating
    from a single source.

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  • Some Interesting Policy Questions Posed by Recent French Damages Decision

    The case is Hutchinson SA v. CF Gomma Barre Thomas SA, Cour de Cassation, ch. comm., Mar. 21, 2018, PIBD No. 1093, III, 290.  The case involves EP 0 6 910 481, for improvement in rods connection certain vibrating parts of vehicles to the bodies of such vehicles.  Hutchinson is the owner of the patent, which it exclusively licensed to co-plaintiff Paulstra SNC.  The court affirms a finding of liability with regard to certain products, but also affirms the denial of damages to Hutchinson on the ground that it did not substantiate its loss.  Hutchinson declined to offer evidence of the revenue it derives from Paulstra (which is an affiliated company of Hutchinson, as well as the latter’s exclusive licensee), and of how much of this revenue is attributable to the patent in suit.  The court also concludes that a license negotiated, post-injunction, with (if I’m understanding this correctly) another (co-defendant) firm that took over the management of the defendant’s affairs as a result of a reorganization, was not probative.  Finally, the court affirms a judgment of lost profits awarded to Paulstra, which apparently was based in part on the sales revenues earned by the defendants, on the ground that the resolution of this matter was within the discretion of the Court of Appeals.  
    The case poses some interesting policy questions, in my view.  First, as I discuss here at pp. 19-20, as a matter of policy it isn’t clear to me whether a court should do its best to award some sort of royalty when the parties’ evidence falls short, or deny damages altogether.  The latter was Judge Posner’s view in Apple v. Motorola, but the Federal Circuit thought otherwise; and this also appears to be the view among the German courts, which generally make an effort to award something by application of their “free discretion” (nach freier Überzeugung).  Second, on the issue of what damages to award the patentee/exclusive licensor, see this article by Mark Lemley, stating (at p. 673) that “In my view, a patentee who has granted an exclusive license should stand in the shoes of the exclusive licensee; if the exclusive licensee has lost profits because of infringement, those losses should be compensable in a suit by either or both parties, divided as per the agreement between them,” but also noting that Federal Circuit case law appears to the contrary.  Third, without using the term “holdup,” the court appears to recognize that a settlement entered into after entry of an injunction may not provide a good reflection of the value of the patented technology.  For previous discussion on this blog, see, e.g., here.  Finally, for discussion of whether the defendant’s sales revenue can ever be a good-enough heuristic from which to infer the plaintiff’s lost sales and hence lost profit, see again this article, at p.25.
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