• CAFC in In re SWARTZ: cold fusion and collateral estoppel

    Within the decision:

    Similarly, in In re Swartz, 232 F.3d 862, 864 (Fed.
    Cir. 2000) (“Swartz I”), this court held that the claims of
    Swartz’s U.S. Patent Application No. 07/760,970 were
    unpatentable for failure of utility and enablement. The
    at-issue ’765 application is a continuation of the ’970
    application, and the representative claims in the two are
    nearly identical.

    The core requirements for collateral estoppel are that:
    the issue in question is identical to an issue previously
    decided, the issue was actually litigated in the prior
    proceeding, the resolution of the issue was necessary to
    the prior judgment, and the party challenging the issue
    must have been given a full and fair opportunity to litigate
    the issue in the prior proceeding. Jet, Inc. v. Sewage
    Aeration Sys., 223 F.3d 1360, 1366 (Fed. Cir. 2000).
    Swartz argues that the district court wrongly applied
    estoppel here because he submitted new references not
    present in the previous appeals to show utility, and
    because the applications here no longer include explicit
    references to cold fusion.

    Neither the new references nor the elimination of explicit
    reference to cold fusion avoids the application of
    collateral estoppel. Swartz has not shown that these
    differences “materially alter the question of invalidity.”
    See Ohio Willow Wood Co. v. Alps S., LLC, 735 F.3d 1333,
    1342 (Fed. Cir. 2013). Substantially identical claims were
    previously found to be invalid as lacking utility and not
    enabled. That holding is binding on Swartz.


    As discussed above, applications that suggest inherently
    unbelievable inventions satisfy the Board’s initial burden
    to show lack of utility, and we have previously held that
    Dr. Swartz’s LENR-related inventions here properly fall
    within that realm.

    The decision was per curiam, Before PROST, Chief Judge, NEWMAN and LINN, Circuit

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  • Lawsuits related to Facebook

    Here are two related to pictures on Facebook:from Dennis v Napoli, 2015 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 3020, 2015 NY Slip Op 31540(U) (N.Y. Sup. Ct. August 12, 2015) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.**The complaint alleges that since discovering…

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  • Trade Secret Litigation in Federal Court

    Trade Secret Litigation in Federal Court

    LexMachina has released a new report on Trade Secret litigation in Federal Court.

    The basics: Federal Trade Secret litigation is up about 30% following enactment of the Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA) in 2016.  (1134 cases filed in 2017). The DTSA created a federal cause of action for trade secret litigation and resulting original jurisdiction in federal court for the federal claims. Prior to the DTSA, state-law trade secret claims found their way into federal court either via supplemental jurisdiction (typically linked to an a federal IP claim) or via diversity jurisdiction (parties from different states).

    The vast majority of trade secret actions include additional causes of action — most often breach of contract or other commercial law claim.

    [Report here – Registration Required]

    Continue reading Trade Secret Litigation in Federal Court at Patently-O.

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  • Costumes and Copyrights: Can you afford to wear that?

    There’s a season every year where individuals dress-up in homemade costumes and gather for tricks, treats… and comic books? That’s right, it’s comic-con season! Many fans proudly wear costumes that they create themselves, dressing up as their favorite super hero, anime cartoon, or video game character. However, one thing they probably are not considering is whether those costumes could put them in jeopardy of a copyright infringement claim. But, since the costume industry as a whole is a…

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  • House Subcommittees Hold Hearing on China’s Predatory Trade, Investment Strategy

    The day’s hearing featured discussion of actions the U.S. government should be taking in order to counter deceptive trade practices pursued by the Chinese government, a topic which has become a main theme of the administration of President Donald Trump… Despite initiatives like the Made in China 2025 program, there’s no way for the Chinese economy to get close to catching up to the United States’ competitive advantage in many industries over the next 20 to 30 years without cheating by…

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  • 構成される



    $$ The layers will be provided with electrodes arranged for activation of the layers. / 層は、層の活性化のために構成された電極を備える。(USP6833656)

    $$ Effectively, the intelligent network in FIG. 4 is arranged as a DCE. / 図4のインテリジェント網は、DCEとして効果的に構成されている。(USP5907602)

    $$ The temperature sensor could be configured to detect the ambient temperature. / 温度センサーは、周囲温度を検出するように構成できる。(USP8430331)

    $$ The bolometer detectors are configured as a series/parallel connected block. / ボロメータ検出器は、直列/並列接続されているブロックとして構成される。(USP8373561)

    $$ Thus, amplifier 122 is configured as an integrator. / つまり、増幅器122は積算器として構成されている。(USP5434880)

    $$ The cherishing of the data streams may then be configured as follows: / データストリームを大事にすることは、以下の通りに構成されてよい。(USP7006435)

    $$ The embodiment described has the advantage that a transmission standard can be defined which allows coders and decoders to be constructed with any number of units in parallel.(USP5856847)

    $$ The image constructed with the replacement patterns will be called the "replacement representation". (USP4668995)

    $$ In addition, the support arm channels 23 may be constructed of a tough plastic material such as ultra high molecular weight polyethylene extrusions, lessening the weight imposed on the actuator mechanism 30. / さらに、支持アームのみぞ23は、超高分子量のポリエチレンの押し出し成形物のような強いプラスチック材料で作り、アクテュエータ・メカニズム30へかかる重量を減らすことができる。(USP5466329)

    $$ The plunger 2 is constructed of nickel steel and has a smooth polished outer surface. / プランジャー2は、ニッケル鋼によって構成され、滑らかに研磨した外部表面を有している。(USP5366528)

    $$ Each of the membranes 58 is constructed of a flexible stainless steel sheet having a thickness of, for example, 0.008 inch. / 膜58のおのおのは厚さが、例えば、0.008"のステンレス鋼板よりできている。(USP5466329)

    $$ TN displays can be constructed using stripes of row and column electrodes on the upper and lower cell surfaces allowing the device to be multiplexed. / TNディスプレイは、上部と下部のセル表面上の行電極と列電極の縞(stripe)を用いて構成され得、これによって、素子が多重される(multiplexed)ことが可能となる。(USP7053975)

    $$ For example, the door 50 may be constructed of expanded polystyrene. / 例えば、ドア50は発泡ポリスチレンで構成される。(USP6453224)

    $$ Television transmitters are, in the higher powers, normally constructed with separate sound and vision power amplifiers working on adjacent but separate frequencies. / テレビの送信機は、電力がより高い場合には、接近しているが別個の周波数で動作する別個の音声及び映像電力増幅器によって通常構成される。(USP5389890)

    $$ Such a circuit constructed in accordance with the invention can be considered (with hindsight of the present invention) to be a non-obvious development from a distributed amplifier configuration. / 本発明によって構成されたそのような回路は(本発明の後から考えると)分布増幅器形態からの明らかではない発展であると考えることができる。(USP5412347)

    $$ The cladding material has a refractive index which is a function of its moisture content and may be constituted by sintered or porous plastic. / クラディング材料はその水蒸気含有量即ち湿気の関数である屈折率を有し、焼結体または多孔性プラスティックにより構成されてもよい。(USP5903685)

    $$ The air injector unit 21 is constituted by a main body portion 22 and two clamping plates 23 and 24. / 空気注入ユニット21は主本体部22と2つのクランプ用板(プレート)23,24とで構成される。(USP5749565)

    $$ The system described may consist of computer for operator control and data calculation and store, and a 3D position sensitive device attached to the intra-operative gamma probe. / 記述されるシステムは、オペレータによる制御や、データ計算および保存のためのコンピュータと、術中使用するガンマプローブに付属される三次元位置検知装置とで構成される。(USP7576332)

    $$ In this embodiment, a mobile videophone 200 consists of an upper half 202 and a lower half 204 connected via a hinge mechanism 206. / この実施形態では、モバイルビデオフォン200は、ヒンジ機構206を介して接続される上側部分202および下側部分204から構成される。(USP6812954)

    $$ It is also conceivable that the shield may incorporate, or consist of, the waveguides of the magnetron. / さらにシールドはマグネトロンのウエーブガイドを設けるかあるいはウエーブガイドで構成されてもよい。(USP6028315)

    (COMPOSED OF) –(consist ofと同様にクローズド表現といわれている)
    $$ The result is two new helixes in place of the first, each composed of one of the original strands plus its newly assembled complementary strand. / この結果が、最初のものに代わる2つの新しい螺旋であり、このそれぞれは、オリジナルのストランドの中の1つのものにその新しく組み立てられた相補的なストランドを加えたものから構成されている。(USP7652266)

    $$ Non-destructive inspection of metallic materials, for example materials from which structural engineering components are composed, can be undertaken by introducing ultrasound into the material. / 例えば構造管理要素が構成される材料のような、金属材料の非破壊検査は材料内に超音波を導入することにより行われ得る。(USP7024935)

    $$ An apparatus according to claim 1, wherein both the activity surface and the upper surface of the movable tray comprise turfed surfaces. / 活動面と可動式トレイ上面の両方が芝面で構成される請求項1に記載の装置。(USP7090586)

    $$ The required operations on these counters simply comprise increment and decrement requests. / これらのカウンタに必要な操作は単にインクリメント要求およびデクリメント要求で構成される。(USP7580997)

    $$ As shown in FIG. 1, an adaptive filter 1 comprises a digital filter 2 connected with adaptive means 4. / 図1に示すように、適応フィルタ1は適応手段4に接続されたデジタルフィルタ2で構成される。(USP5987485)

    $$ The organic electroluminescent layer may comprise a conjugated polymer capable of electroluminescence. / 有機エレクトロルミネセント層は、エレクトロルミネセンスを行うことができる共役重合体から構成することができる。(USP5929562)

    $$ The output of the adder 54 is supplied to the buffer 34 which is implemented by a RAM store or frame recorder such as the Sony HDDF 500, depending upon the amount of storage which is required. / 加算器54の出力は、例えばソニーHDDF500のようなRAMまたはフレームレコーダによって構成されたバッファ34に、必要とされる記憶量に応じて供給される。(USP5313281)

    $$ The discriminator 140 can alternately be implemented as a pair of slits, one slit of the pair being positionally adjustable relative to the other slit of the pair. / このディスクリミネータ140は、代わりに一対のスリットとして構成され、この一対のスリットの一方のスリットが、この一対のスリットの他方のスリットに対して位置的に調節可能とされるものであってもよい。(USP6977986)

    $$ However, preferably at least part of the render processor is implemented within the video processor 5. / しかしながら、少なくともレンダプロセッサの一部がビデオプロセッサ5内で構成されることが好ましい。(USP6772122)

    $$ The service is implemented using an Intelligent Network. / サービスは、インテリジェントネットワークを使用して構成される。(USP6330313)


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  • Actual Use vs Inherent Disclosure: Endo v. Custopharm

    Endo Pharms. Sols., Inc. v. Custopharm Inc., — F.3d —, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 19265 (Fed. Cir. 2018).

    by Dennis Crouch

    Endo’s injectable testosterone Aveed is listed in the Orange Book as being covered by Bayer’s U.S. Patent Nos. 7,718,640 and 8,338,395.  Endo and Bayer sued Custopharm after it submitted an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) to produce a generic version. (Under 35 U.S.C. 271(e), submission of the ANDA is an act of infringement).

    On appeal, the Federal Circuit has sided with the patentee — affirming the district court judgment of validity.

    The claimed invention here requires the use of testosterone undecanoate (TU) at a concentration of 250 mg/ml in a vehicle containing a mixture of about 40% castor oil and 60% benzyl benzoate. (Claim 1 of the ‘640 patent). Three key prior art references are all research articles that report using the same concentration of TU and also the castor oil.  The articles do not, however, actually report that benzyl benzoate was used — it turns out though that the researchers (including one overlapping listed inventor here) used the same 40/60 split of castor oil and benzyl benzoate. 

    Continue reading Actual Use vs Inherent Disclosure: Endo v. Custopharm at Patently-O.

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