THAT IS ～ING
$$ This is because the remanent magnetic pattern within the ferromagnetic material is stable, that is not evolving with time, within the frame of reference of the test material at the location of the receiver. / その理由は強磁性材料内の残留磁気パターンが安定しており、パターンが受信器位置におけるテスト材料の関連部分内で時間の経過につれて退化されないからである。(USP7024935)
$$ It is also envisaged that the hollow column may be of an open frame or lattice type structure, that is having a plurality of openings located along its length. / また、中空コラムは、長手方向に複数の開口部を設けた、開放骨組み構造あるいは格子型構造であっても良いと予測できる。(USP6028315)
$$ This invention is directed to how and when to install or "range-in" a new outstation that is demanding a timeslot assignment. (USP5559805)
$$ Because processing is carried out in a more secure environment that is not having a link to a certifier server 2 there is a reduced risk of capture of token information and identity fraud. (USP7627895)
$$ The invention further extends to an object-oriented system where at least one of the objects is defined as "background", that is that part of the moving picture or image that is stationary or that is changing slowly relative to the rest. (USP6078619)
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Earlier today the U.S. Department of Commerce issued a report titled White Paper on Remixes, First Sale, and Statutory Damages, which recommends amendments to U.S. copyright law that would provide more guidance and greater flexibility to courts in awar…Continue Reading ...
By Donald Zuhn — In a letter sent earlier this month to Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services and Director Francis S. Collins of the National Institutes of Health, fifty members of the U.S. House of Representatives urged Secretary Burwell and Director Collins to use their existing statutory authority to respond to the soaring cost of pharmaceuticals. The letter begins by noting that the Bayh-Dole Act authorizes federal agencies that fund private research to retain certain rights in patented inventions, including march-in rights under 35 U.S.C. § 203(a)(2) that can be used when…Continue Reading ...
Takeaway: A teaching in the prior art that an asserted combination would result in a decrease in performance is not necessarily a teaching away that would result in a finding of nonobviousness. In its Decision, the Board denied Patent Owner’s … Continue reading →Continue Reading ...
$$ In this case however the effect of feedback which acts to equalise the IR emission from the IRLED 28 and the mean level of that emitted from the…Continue Reading ...
Stephen Miller and Brian Popko have a new theory on the origins of multiple sclerosis:
The current prevailing theory [of multiple sclerosis [MS]] is that an event outside of the nervous system triggers MS in susceptible individuals who may have a genetic predisposition to the disease. In these individuals, the immune cells that normally fight infections confuse a component of the myelin sheath as foreign. These confused immune cells enter the brain and begin their mistaken attack on myelin, thus initiating MS.
New inside-out discovery
But the new study demonstrates the possibility that MS can begin from the inside out, in which damage to oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system can trigger an immune response directly. Oligodendrocytes are responsible for the maintenance of myelin. If they die, the myelin sheath falls apart. The inside-out hypothesis suggests that when myelin falls apart, the products of its degradation are presented to the immune system as foreign bodies or antigens. The immune system then erroneously views them as invaders and begins a full-scale attack on myelin, initiating MS.
An estimated 400,000 people in the U.S. and 2.5 million worldwide have MS. Of those with long-standing disease, 50 to 60 percent have progressive MS.
T cells in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 Oct; 162(1): 1–11.
MS is a chronic, progressive inflammatory disorder of the brain and spinal cord. The inflammatory plaque, whether determined histopathologically or using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is the pathological hallmark of MS . Studies demonstrating the presence of inflammatory cells and their products in the brain lesions of MS patients, in addition to reports from animal models, has led to the generally accepted hypothesis that disease is mediated by pathogenic T cell responses against myelin antigens, followed by a broader neurodegenerative process . The autoreactive T cells migrate across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and mediate damage against the central neurones and their myelin sheaths, in particular, but also their axons. The key morphological feature of MS is primary demyelination of nerve axons leading to signal conduction block or conduction slowing at the site of demyelination.
The overwhelming evidence of a role for T cells in the pathogenesis of EAE and MS makes them an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Indeed, the two most commonly used drugs used to treat MS, IFN-β and glatiramir acetate, can increase Treg cells and IL-10 and thereby suppress proinflammatory T cell cytokines, although they probably also act on other cell types. More deliberate strategies to manipulate T cells involve either targeting inflammatory T cells or their effector functions, or boosting the function of Treg cells. The anti-VLA-4 antibody natalizumab, which inhibits the entry of T cells into the CNS, is relatively effective compared to other licensed drugs.
***As to Alemtuzumab
epletion is followed by lymphocyte repopulation, which begins within weeks. B-lymphocyte counts typically return to baseline by 6 months post-treatment, whereas in clinical trials, mean T-cell counts approached normal (but not baseline) levels by 12 months post-treatment [Kovarova et al. 2012; Kasper et al. 2013]. CD4+ T-cell repopulation is particularly delayed. In a long-term follow-up of 37 patients who had received alemtuzumab treatment in the 1990s for MS, median recovery time to normal levels was 8.4 months for B cells, 20 months for CD8+ T cells and 12 years for CD4+ T cells [Hill-Cawthorne et al. 2012]. It should be noted that many of these patients received a single treatment course of 100 mg over 5 infusion days, which is higher than the approved dose (60 mg over 5 days for the initial course, and 36 mg over 3 days for subsequent courses). T-lymphocyte repopulation is accomplished through proliferation of mature lymphocytes that escaped depletion (i.e. ‘homeostatic’ proliferation) as well as new production from precursors in the thymus [Cox et al. 2005; Jones et al. 2013].
Despite profound depletion of circulating lymphocytes, animal studies have shown that lymphocyte numbers in primary and secondary lymphoid organs are maintained [Hu et al. 2009]. Other aspects of the immune system are also unaffected by alemtuzumab, including innate immune cells, some T-cell subsets (tissue-resident effector memory T cells), plasma cells and serum immunoglobulin levels [Coles et al. 1999b; Clark et al. 2012; Turner et al. 2013].
***For a review of monoclonal antibody treatements of MS, see
including as to rituximab:
Rituximab is a chimeric, IgG1, CD20-directed mAb approved for the treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis (in combination with methotrexate) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis (in combination with glucocorticoids) [Genentech, 2013]. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial of patients with RRMS [Hauser et al. 2008], rituximab significantly reduced total and new Gd-enhancing lesions and the proportion of patients with relapse compared with placebo after 24 and 48 weeks; however, rituximab is not approved for the treatment of MS and is no longer in clinical development for this indication. However, offlabel use of rituximab for MS occurs in clinical practice in several countries.
Rituximab targets CD20 expressed on pre-B and mature B cells, depleting these cells in the circulation and CNS [Naismith et al. 2010]. Although MS was traditionally considered a T-cell mediated disease, accumulating evidence suggests that B cells play a role. As addon therapy, rituximab decreased the number of Gd-enhancing lesions in a phase II trial of patients with an inadequate response to standard injectable DMTs [Naismith et al. 2010]. In study patients with primary progressive MS, rituximab slowed increases in T2 hyperintense lesion volume but did not prolong time to confirmed disease progression compared with placebo [Hawker et al. 2009]; however, a subgroup analysis found that disease progression was slowed in patients younger than 51 years of age with ⩾1 Gd-enhancing lesion [Hawker et al. 2009].
Mult Scler. 2007 Mar;13(2):149-55. Epub 2007 Jan 29.
Increased CD8+ central memory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Liu GZ1, Fang LB, Hjelmström P, Gao XG.
A T-cell-mediated autoimmune process against central nervous system myelin is believed to underlie the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Formation of immunological memory is based on the differentiation of naïve T cells to memory T cells after exposure to antigens and specific cytokines. The aim of this study was to analyse peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MS for different T-cell subsets including naïve and memory T cells. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to analyse memory T-cell subsets and plasma concentration of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in peripheral blood of MS patients, patients with other neurological disorders and healthy controls. MS patients had a skewed distribution of T cells with an increased level of CD8+/CCR7+/CD45RA – central memory T cells (TCM) compared to healthy controls. In addition, MS patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma IL-15 than healthy controls did. Upregulated CD8+ TCM in MS patients may reflect a persistent chronic inflammatory response that may have been induced during early stages of the disease. This derangement may be important for maintaining chronic inflammation in MS.
link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17439879Continue Reading ...
To hear Ars Technica say it is ”a terrible idea” to devote increased funding in order to eradicate cancer is astonishing on many levels. As part of the reason why he believes increased funding for cancer research is a terrible idea he explains that g…Continue Reading ...
The administration of the 44th President of the United States will be remembered for many reasons, but one theme which has been playing out since the earliest days of Barack Obama’s presidency is a predilection towards using popular and developing technologies. In his first few months in office, President Obama created the position of U.S. Chief Technology Officer, an official adviser to the President on tech policy and a role currently served by Megan Smith, a former executive at Google….
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By Donald Zuhn –- For the second time in a little more than a month, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has experienced an unexpected closing. Last month, the closing resulted from a major power outage at USPTO headquarters in Alexandria, VA that significantly damaged the Office’s electronic systems and required the shutdown of its online and IT systems. During the earlier shutdown, the Office considered each day from December 22-24 to be a “Federal holiday within the District of Columbia” under 35 U.S.C. § 21 and 37 C.F.R. §§ 1.6, 1.7, 1.9, 2.2(d), 2.195, and 2.196 (see “Major Power…Continue Reading ...
Fox News covered the coming auction of letters of relevance to the aviation invention of the Wright Brothers.
A 1916 patent transfer document for Wright’s invention of the airplane and one in which the inventor defends his reputation will be auctioned by Nate D. Sanders Auctions in Los Angeles. Bidding for the patent transfer document and letter will begin at $25,000 and $12,500 respectively.
The first document confirms Orville Wright mortgaged five patents to New York investors led by William Boyce Thompson and that he had been paid – thus ensuring any challenges to the patents were relayed to the new owners. The Wright Company had entered into a loan agreement with the Thompson investors in return for $1 million.
A letter Orville Wright sent in 1928 to Connecticut Senator Hiram Bingham will also go on the block. In that typewritten letter, Wright appeared angry with the Smithsonian Institute for discrediting the Wright Brothers as inventors of the first flying machine.
The Smithsonian recognized ex-Smithsonian Secretary Samuel P. Langley as the inventor of the airplane in their 1914 annual report.
”The important point at issue is as to who was the inventor of the first successful flying machine. The Smithsonian for the past seventeen years has kept up constant propaganda to take the credit for this away from my brother and myself,” Wright wrote in the letter. “Such practice as this is beneath the dignity of a scientific institution … I believe there was no one else in the world at that time beside Wilbur and myself that had the scientific data for building a machine that would fly.”
Recall that Wilbur Wright died in 1912. From an IPBiz post titled Patent thickets and the Wright Brothers :
The Wright-Martin Company that bought him [Orville Wright] out, however, was primarily interested in recovering the more than $1,000,000 it had paid for the rights to the patent. In December 1916, the company notified other aircraft manufacturers that they would have to pay a royalty of five percent on each aircraft sold, with a minimum annual royalty of $10,000 per manufacturer. Wright-Martin demanded this royalty on all aircraft, whether they achieved differential lifting by the wing-warping technique of the Wrights or the far more popular ailerons employed by Curtiss.
See also: http://ipbiz.blogspot.com/2007/06/it-is-always-easier-to-deal-with-things.htmlContinue Reading ...
There were no topics ruled out of bounds for this 30 minute interview, not even the Supreme Court’s recent decision to accept cert. in Cuozzo, although as an attorney myself I know better than to ask questions that would have certainly provoked a polit…Continue Reading ...
This January 29th marks the 25th anniversary of the issue of a seminal patent in the field of dental implants, one that helped its inventor find a place in this year’s class of inductees to the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Per-Ingvar Branemark did not live to see his induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame; he passed away in December 2014 at the age of 85. He did, however, live to see his invention implantation system, which was originally so widely derided, become a standard…
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Takeaway: The Board may exercise its discretion to deny asserted grounds of unpatentability for reasons of administrative necessity and to ensure timely completion of an instituted proceeding. In its Decision, the Board determined Petitioner had established a reasonable likelihood of … Continue reading →Continue Reading ...
Takeaway: Stay of a reissue application may be appropriate where the challenged claims in a proceeding before the Board are included in the reissue application and where examination of the reissue application has not begun. In its Order, the Board … Continue reading →
The post Granting Stay of Reissue Application CBM2015-00147 appeared first on PTAB Trial Blog.Continue Reading ...
Michael Borella: Voxaton v. Alpine Electronics Of America Joshua Wolson: Will The Supreme Court Save Apple From Itself? Chuck Jones: Why Does IBM’s Intellectual Property Revenue Continue To Decline Clark Asay: Does Innovation Mean Patent Licensing Demands? Ed Walsh: The Supreme Court To Decide Claim Interpretation. But Until Then, What? Brandon Clark: Political Campaigns & […]Continue Reading ...
In a piece titled New patent subject-matter eligibility test hurts US competitiveness, Robert L. Stoll suggests that the US patent system may be more patent – grant unfriendly than the patent systems of Europe or even China.But due to a series of poorl…Continue Reading ...
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) seeks General Attorney for the Office of General Law (OGL). OGL attorneys represent the USPTO in administrative litigation proceedings and/or provide advice and legal opinions on a broad range of issues invo…Continue Reading ...
Leason Ellis, a boutique intellectual property law firm specializing in patent, trademark and copyright protection and litigation, has announced that Courtney Shanney and Peter Busch have joined the firm as Associates. With the additions of Shanney and…Continue Reading ...
$$ The force is that necessary to displace the spout inwards of the can. / 前記圧力は、缶体内部に噴出し口を変位させるために必要なものである。(USP8408208)
$$ Once the user has moved that close to the image capture part 34, the range sensor 51 outputs the proximity signal mentioned above. / ユーザがイメージ捕捉部34の近くに眼を移動すると、距離センサ51は上述の近接信号を出力する。(USP6687389)
$$ Most typically the pressure in reservoir 24, for example in ambulatory drug pumps, will be lower than that at the outlet needle 23. / 最も典型的には、例えば歩行用薬剤ポンプにおける上記貯留部２４の圧力は、出口針２３における圧力よりも低い。(USP7284962)
$$ The superscript "+" in n.sup.+ denotes much higher doping concentration than that in the layer 12. / ｎ＋の上付き文字「＋」は、層１２内よりもドーピング濃度がずっと高いことを示す。(USP6809514)
$$ The computation time for this method is o(slog2 s) which is a factor log2 s longer than that for the linear fitting method. / この方法による計算時間はｏ(slog2s)であり､これは､線形フィッティング法(linear fitting method)の場合より長いファクタlog2ｓである｡(USP6208416)
$$ A substance sensor comprises a single-mode optical fibre having a core and a cladding having a lower refractive index than that of the core. / 物質センサはコア（１）と、低い屈折率を有するクラディング（２）とを有する光ファイバ具備している。(USP5903685)
$$ As hydrogen has a smaller atomic volume than oxygen, its rate of diffusion into the air flow is, ordinarily, greater than that of oxygen into the hydrogen. / 水素は酸素より小さい原子容を有しているので､空気流中への水素の拡散速度は水素中への酸素の拡散速度より大きいのが普通である｡(USP5436086)
$$ Thus, the instantaneous frequency may vary appreciably, provided that the nominal frequency during starting is substantially higher than that during normal operation for a sufficient time to facilitate firing of the tube. (USP6124682)
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- Gender Diversity in IP and Technology Policy: A New Resource and Way to get Noticed
- Gender Diversity in IP and Technology Policy: A New Resource and Way to get Noticed
- Solutions in Search of a Problem: The Trademark Register Clogged?
- Inside Views: US Patent System Remains 1st In The World, Despite Errors In Chamber Rankings